Australian Government - TRA

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Tourism Research Australia

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China, India and Japan resources



  • Barro, RJ and  Lee JW (2010), A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010, NBER Working Paper 15902, Also in Journal of Development Economics (October 2012). This source provides a public dataset on educational attainment useful when comparing education indicators across countries.
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF, April 2013), World Economic Outlook provides macro-economic data and forecasts including country comparisons.  Both data and reports are available online. 
  • Internet World Stats (2012) - this website provides up-to-date data on internet usage rates in most countries in the world. 
  • Kharas & Gertz 2010 The New Global Middle Class: A Cross-Over from West to East (Homi Kharas and Geoffrey Gertz),  Wolfensohn Center for Development at Brookings.  This academic article explores changes in global demography and their likely impact on economics, especially the US and China.  It defines, measures and forecasts vital statistics relating the "global middle class".
  • Sheng (2012) Australian finance in the Asian Century, April 17th, 2012. Andrew Sheng, from the Fung Global Institute sets out two possible scenarios for Asia-Australia financial futures, one rosy and one much less so. He explores some of the anomalies in the financial interactions between Australia and Asia, pointing to the shallowness of relations at present.
  • UNESCO (2012) Global Education Digest 2012 - this report from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Institute of Statistics provides detailed data on international education; flows of students between countries as well as scholarly articles on education issues and development.
  • The World Bank (2013) The Complete World Development Report Online this website provides access to detailed analytical reports, internationally comparable data and useful articles on economic and development issues. 


Global tourism

  • Song et al 2010.  Tourism demand modelling and forecasting: how should demand be measured?  Song H; Hom, H; Li, G; Witt, S.F. & Fei, B. Journal of Tourism Economics, 2010. 16 (1), 63–81. - This academic paper provides an up-to-date description of the relationship between income and tourism demand, and a detailed discussion on various forecasting methods.
  • UNWTO (2013)  Barometer  April 2013 report.  This regular report from the United Nations World Tourism Organization provides up-to-date information on global tourism flows, top countries as sources of international travel, top destinations, tourism expenditure, etc.  A condensed version of the report is available for free download, and a detailed report for Members. 
  • UNWTO (2012)  Tourism Highlights - An annual report from the United Nations World Tourism Organization which provides a compendium of global tourism statistics with data up to 2011.



  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2013) Catalogue 3401: Overseas Arrivals and Departures provides monthly data sourced from the incoming and outgoing passenger cards filled out by all people entering or exiting Australia. 'Short term visitor arrivals' (Table 4) is the primary measure used by the industry to gauge monthly tourist arrivals.  Data is available split by purpose on a consultancy basis from the ABS, while summary tables are available in spreadsheet format with data going back to 1991. This collection also provides data on outbound trips by Australian residents in Table 9.
  • PriceWaterhouseCoopers and Tourism Australia (2012) Distribution 2020: A Situational Analysis.  This up-to-date consultancy report by PWC uses data from TNS, TRA and BDA.  It is a detailed report that includes data for individual source markets based on the Dream, Plan, Book, Share model of the Tourism purchase cycle, with very useful measurements of internet use at every stage. It presents IVS data to show which markets are using on-line channels. See diagram on page v for a useful market summary. It provides detailed analysis of the workings of the tourism distribution system in the wake of the internet revolution.
  • Tourism Forecasts, Spring 2013 - The forecasts are produced using a model of tourism demand and latest economic forecasts. They are published twice a year and have detailed breakdowns by international source market and destination region in Australia. Available here.
  • Tourism Australia (February 2013) Quarterly Market Update - this is a short report released every quarter that presents data on each of the major inbound source markets to Australia by country and region.
  • Tourism Research Australia (2012) TRA Quarterly Report, December. This up-to-date report provides a useful one-stop-shop for all of the key results indicators on both demand and supply in Australian Tourism. Also provides a policy score-card  measuring progress towards the national goal of the 2020 Tourism Potential.



  • Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation  (2013) This website provides aviation news, short articles and links to detailed reports and data on Asia Pacific aviation trends.  
  • Drysdale 2012, Can Asia help power world recovery? , East Asia Forum, June 18th, 2012.  Provides a useful overview of economics across Asia with an emphasis on China.
  • The UNWTO and Tourism Australia (2013) Key Outbound Tourism Markets in South-East Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam (April 2013). This report explores the outbound tourism generating potential of each of the five markets in a comparative context, providing detailed information on demographics, economic factors and outbound tourism factors of each source market.




  • Boston Consulting Group (2010) Taking Off - Travel and Tourism in China and Beyond this substantial report from BCG, published in 2011, describes the Chinese travel consumer, their preferences and patterns of travel.  Available for free download.  The BCG website also has useful information and articles on Indian consumers.
  • Destination NSW (2012) - China Tourism Strategy 2012-2020.  This strategy by the State Tourism Organisation for NSW presents eight strategic directions to grow and develop Chinese visitation to Sydney and NSW. 
  • Dragontail (2013) "Essential China Travel Trends" Report - this 94 page report which is a collaboration between the China Outbound Tourism Research Institute (COTRI) and Pacific Asia Tourism Association (PATA) and the UNWTO, contains a wealth of information on the Chinese traveller of today, as well as articles about tourism in China, Hotel performance, outbound travel, consumer preferences etc.  This report and other useful presentations, podcasts, etc, are available via a free subscription online.
  • Hurun (2013) Chinese Luxury Consumer Survey - the results of this survey undertaken in 2013 illustrate the priority categories of spending by Chinas richest people. 
  • King,B. et al (2006) An evaluation of unethical business practices in Australia's China inbound tourism market. (King, Brian, Dwyer, Larry, and Prideaux, Bruce) International Journal of Tourism Research, 8 (2). pp. 127-142.  This academic paper describes the unethical of practices that have been observed in the context of inbound group tours from China - and the impact of the practices on the growth of the market is evaluated. Please note that various policies have been implemented to address the issues since this article was published.
  • The Economist (April 2012)  China’s Achilles heel: A comparison with America reveals a deep flaw in China’s model of growth. This short article in offers a succinct and powerful description of China's demographic challenge, calling it the 'Achilles Heel' and highlighting the difficulties China will face in future years due to low rates of population growth.
  • Tourism Australia (2010) Chinese Market Strategy 2020 is a concise look at the strategies and actions being pursued by Tourism Australia in the Chinese market.
  • Tourism Australia (2013) China Market Profile. This concise report illustrates the size and shape of the Japanese market to Australia, recent performance as well as longer term trends. Includes latest aviation developments. Similar reports are available for each of the major inbound markets.
  • Tourism Victoria (2012) Victoria's China Tourism Strategy. Released in May 2012 this online document provides an overview of the China market's importance to Victoria including the competitive strengths of the destination.  It goes on to present a multi-faceted approach based on building Chinese visitor demand and creating a world class experience for Chinese visitors to Victoria.




  • Lowy Institute (2013) India-Australia Poll 2013 by Rory Medcalf, 17 April 2013. This poll of 1,233 Indian respondents regarding their attitudes towards 22 foreign countries provides a snapshot of how Australia's reputation has fared in terms of a place to visit or study. 
  • Tourism Australia (2013) India Market Profile. This concise report illustrates the size and shape of the Japanese market to Australia, recent performance as well as longer term trends. Includes latest aviation developments. Similar reports are available for each of the major inbound markets.
  • Tourism Australia (2010) 2020 India Strategy is a concise look at the strategies and actions being pursued by Tourism Australia in the Indian tourism market.
  • The World Bank (2013) World Bank India Overview this website provides up-to-date indicators of development for India, including data, reports and statistics, as well as news and links to scholarly articles.




  • Tourism Australia (2013) Japan Market Profile. This concise report illustrates the size and shape of the Japanese market to Australia, recent performance as well as longer term trends. Includes latest aviation developments. Similar reports are available for each of the major inbound markets including China and India.
  • Tourism Research Australia (2009) Japan: Changing trends in patterns of Travel to Australia is a comprehensive 87 page report exploring the development of the Japanese tourism market to Australia and explaining the factors behind its demise in the 2000s.
  • Australian Government (2012) Australia in the Asian Century White Paper: Japan Country Profile. This short profile outlines the economic and cultural links between Australia and Japan in the Asian Century.